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2018-2019学年七年级数学上学期期末检测卷 (新版)苏科版

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1EvaluationWarning:ThedocumentwascreatedwithSpire.Docfor.NET.期末检测卷(时间:90分钟满分:120分)一、选择题(本大题共8小题,每小题2分,共16分.在每小题所给出的四个选项中,恰有一项是符合题目要求的,请将正确选项前的字母代号填涂在答题卡相应位置.......上).1.下列各数中,无理数是(▲)A.-2B.3.14C.227D.π32.水文观测中,常遇到水位上升或下降的问题.我们规定:水位上升为正,水位下降为负;几天后为正,几天前为负.如果水位每天上升3cm,今天的水位为0cm,那么2天前的水位用算式表示正确的是(▲)A.(+3)×(+2)B.(+3)×(-2)C.(-3)×(+2)D.(-3)×(-2)3.下列计算正确的是(▲)A.4a-2a=2B.2x2+2x2=4x4C.-2x2y-3yx2=-5x2yD.2a2b-3a2b=a2b4.如图,某商品实施促销“第二件半价”,若购买2件该商品,则相当于这2件商品共打了(▲)折A.5B.5.5C.7D.7.55.如图,将正方体的平面展开图重新折成正方体后,“花”字对面的字是(▲)A.傅B.家C.边D.梅6.如图,点A为直线BC外一点,AC⊥BC,垂足为C,AC=3,点P是直线BC上的动点,则线段AP长不可..能.是(▲)A.2B.3C.4D.57.已知线段AB、CD,点M在线段AB上,结合图形,下列说法不正确...的是(▲)A.延长线段AB、CD,相交于点F;B.反向延长线段BA、DC,相交于点F;傅家边梅花节第5题图第4题图2C.过点M画线段AB的垂线,交CD于点E;D.过点M画线段CD的垂线,交CD于点E.8.如果∠α和∠β互补,且∠α<∠β,下列表达式:①90°-∠α;②∠β-90°;③12(∠β+∠α);④12(∠β-∠α)中,等于∠α的余角的式子有(▲)A.1个B.2个C.3个D.4个二、填空题(本大题共10小题,每题2分,共20分.不需写出解答过程,请把答案直接填写在答题卡相应位置上)9.实数-3的绝对值是▲.10.人体中红细胞的直径约为0.0000077m,用科学计数法表示红细胞的直径为▲m.11.已知关于x的方程3a-4x=2的解是x=1,则a的值是▲.12.气象资料表明,高度每增加1000米,气温大约下降6℃.我国黄山的天都峰高1700米,当山脚处温度约为18℃时,天都峰山顶气温为▲℃.13.若2a+b=2,则6+4b+8a=▲.14.数轴上,表示实数-1和2的两个点之间的距离为▲.15.给出下列说法:①同角的补角相等;②相等的角是对顶角;③两点确定一条直线;④过一点有且只有一条直线与已知直线平行,其中正确说法是▲.(写上正确说法的序号)16.若∠1=33°30′,则∠1的补角等于▲°.17.某种无盖的长方体包装盒的展开图如图所示.根据图中数据计算,这种药品包装盒的体积是▲.18.在同一平面内,若∠AOB=50°,∠AOC=40°,∠BOD=30°,则∠DOC的度数是▲°.16912第17题图ABMDFCE第7题图CABP第6题图3三、解答题(本大题共9题,计64分.请在答题卷指定区域内作答,解答时应写出文字说明、证明过程或演算步骤)19.(本题12分,每小题3分)计算:(1)+(―4)―(―3)+|-6|;(2)(23+12)÷(-112)×(-12);(3)2-2×(43×80);(4)(-12)2÷(-2)3×(―2)-2;20.(本题8分,每小题4分)化简与求值:(1)计算:x3·(-2x2)3+x11÷x2;(2)先化简,再求值:5(3a2b-ab2)-3(-ab2+3a2b),其中a=-1,b=-13.21.(本题8分,每小题4分)解方程:(1)2(1-x)=6;(2)3x-x+14=2+x-12.22.(本题4分)点C为线段AB的中点,D在线段CB上,线段DA=5cm,线段DB=2cm,画出图形,并求线段CD的长度.423.(本题4分)如图,每个小方格都是边长为1个单位的小正方形,每个小方格的顶点叫格点,点A,B,C均为格点,利用格点作图:(1)过点C作一直线CD与AB所在直线平行;(2)作∠CAB的一个余角∠CAE.24.(本题6分)从棱长为2的正方体毛坯的一角,挖去一个棱长为1的小正方体,得到一个如图所示的零件.(1)这个零件的表面积是▲;(2)请在边长为1的网格图里画出这个零件的主视图和俯视图.主视图俯视图从正面看第24题图第23题图ABC525.(本题6分)如图,直线AB、CD相交于点O,OE平分∠BOD,OF⊥CD,∠BOE=36°,求∠AOF的大小.26.(本题7分)某小组计划做一批“中国结”,如果每人做5个,那么比计划多了9个;如果每人做4个,那么比计划少15个.该小组共有多少人?计划做多少个“中国结”?根据题意,小明、小红分别列出了尚不完整的方程如下:小明:5x□()=4x□();小红:y□()5=y□()4.(1)根据小明、小红所列的方程,其中“□”中是运算符号,“()”中是数字,请你分别指出未知数x、y表示的意义.小明所列的方程中x表示▲,小红所列的方程中y表示▲;(2)请选择小明、小红中任意一种方法,完整的解答该题目.27.(本题9分)【探索新知】ABCDEFO第25题图6如图1,点C在线段AB上,图中共有3条线段:AB、AC和BC,若其中有一条线段的长度是另一条线段长度的两倍,则称点C是线段AB的“二倍点”.(1)一条线段的中点▲这条线段的“二倍点”;(填“是”或“不是”)【深入研究】如图2,若线段AB=20cm,点M从点B的位置开始,以每秒2cm的速度向点A运动,当点M到达点A时停止运动,运动的时间为t秒.(2)问t为何值时,点M是线段AB的“二倍点”;(3)同时点N从点A的位置开始,以每秒1cm的速度向点B运动,并与点M同时停止.请直接写出点M是线段AN的“二倍点”时t的值.(第27题图)参考答案一、题号12345678答案DBCDAADC二、9.310.7.7×10-611.212.7.813.1414.315.①③16.146.517.18018.20、40、60、120三、19.(1)解:原式=—4+3+6„„„„„„„„„„(2分)=5.„„„„„„„„„„(3分)ABC●●●(图1)AB●●(图2)7(2)解:原式=76÷(-112)×(-12)„„„„„„„„„„(1分)=76×(-12)×(-12)„„„„„„„„„„(2分)=168.„„„„„„„„„(3分)(3)解:原式=14×(64×1)„„„„„„„„„(2分)=16.„„„„„„„„„„(3分)(4)解:原式=14÷(-8)×14„„„„„„„„„„„„„(1分)=14×(-18)×14„„„„„„„„„„„„„(2分)=-1128.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(3分)20.(1)解:原式=x3·(-8x6)+x9„„„„„„„„„„„(2分)=-8x9+x9„„„„„„„„„„„„„(3分)=-7x9.„„„„„„„„„„„„„(4分)(2)解:原式=15a2b-5ab2+3ab2-9a2b„„„„„„„„(2分)=6a2b-2ab2.„„„„„„„„„„„(3分)当a=-1,b=-13时,原式=-169.„„„„„„„„(4分)21.(1)解:2-2x=6„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(1分)-2x=6-2„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(2分)-2x=4„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(3分)x=-2.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(4分)(2)解:12x-(x+1)=8+2(x-1)„„„„„„„„„„(1分)12x-x-1=8+2x-2„„„„„„„„„„„(2分)12x-x-2x=8-2+1„„„„„„„„„„(3分)x=79.„„„„„„„„„„„„„(4分)22.解:画图正确„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(1分)因为AD=5cm,DB=2cm.所以AB=AD+DB=7cm.„„„„„„„„„„„„(2分)DCAB8因为C为AB的中点,所以AC=BC=12AB=3.5cm.„„„„„„„„„„(3分)所以CD=AD-AC=1.5cm.„„„„„„„„„„„(4分)23.如图,(1)格点、字母、作图正确.„„„„„„„„(2分)(2)格点、字母、作图正确.„„„„„„„„(2分)24.(1)24.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(2分)(2)如图,视图每个正确2分.„„„„„„„„„„„(6分)25.解:(1)因为∠BOE=36°,OE平分∠BOD,所以∠BOD=2∠BOE=72°.„„„„„„„(2分)因为直线AB、CD相交于点O,所以∠AOC=∠BOD=72°.„„„„„„„(3分)因为OF垂直于CD,所以∠COF=∠DOF=90°.„„„„„„„(4分)所以∠AOF=∠COF-∠AOC=18°.„„„(6分)(其它方法参照给分)26.解:(1)该小组的人数计划做的“中国结”个数.„„„„„(2分)(2)选择小明:设该小组共有x个人,第23题图ABCDEABCDEFO(第25题)主视图俯视图9可得方程5x-9=4x+15.„„„„„(4分)解得x=24.„„„„„(5分)5x-9=111.„„„„„„(6分)答:该小组共有24人,计划做111个“中国结”.„„(7分)(若选小红参照给分)27.解:(1)是.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(2分)(2)当AM=2BM时,20-2t=2×2t,解得:t=103;„„„„(3分)当AB=2AM时,20=2×(20-2t),解得:t=5;„„„„(4分)当BM=2AM时,2t=2×(20-2t),解得:t=203;„„„„(5分)答:t为103或5或203.„„„„(6分)(3)t为7.5或8或607.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„(9分)2018-2019学年七年级数学上学期期末检测卷 (新版)苏科版

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