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初一数学上册期末考试试题及答案

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七年级上数学期末试卷一、选择题(共15个小题,每小题2分,共30分)1.如果向东走80m记为80m,那么向西走60m记为()A.60mB.|60|mC.(60)mD.60m2.某市2010年元旦的最高气温为2‵,最低气温为-8‵,那么这天的最高气温比最低气温高()A.-10‵B.-6‵C.6‵D.10‵3.-6的绝对值等于()A.6B.16C.16D.64.未来三年,国家将投入8500亿元用于缓解群众“看病难,看病贵”问题.将8500亿元用科学记数法表示为()A.40.8510亿元B.38.510亿元C.48.510亿元D.28510亿元5.当2x时,代数式1x的值是()A.1B.3C.1D.36.下列计算正确的是()A.33ababB.32aaC.225235aaaD.2222ababab7.将线段AB延长至C,再将线段AB反向延长至D,则图中共有线段()A.8条B.7条C.6条D.5条8.下列语句正确的是()A.在所有联结两点的线中,直线最短B.线段A曰是点A与点B的距离C.三条直线两两相交,必定有三个交点D.在同一平面内,两条不重合的直线,不平行必相交9.已知线段AB和点P,如果PAPBAB,那么()A.点P为AB中点B.点P在线段AB上C.点P在线段ABAB外D.点P在线段AB的延长线上10.一个多项式减去222xy等于222xy,则这个多项式是A.222xyB.222xyC.222xyD.222xy11.若xy,则下列式子错误的是A.33xyB.33xyC.32xyD.33xy12.下列哪个不等式组的解集在数轴上的表示如图所示A.21xxB.21xxC.21xxD.21xx13.如图,已知直线AB、CD相交于点O,OE平分∠COB,若∠EOB=55A.35B.55C.70D.11014.把方程0.10.20.710.30.4xx的分母化为整数的方程是()A.0.10.20.7134xxB.12710134xxC.127134xxD.127101034xx二、填空题(共10个小题,每小题2分,共20分)16.比较大小:6_________8(填“<”、“=”或“>”)17.计算:|3|2_________18.如果a与5互为相反数,那么a=_________19.甲数x的23与乙数y的14差可以表示为_________20.定义a‴b=2ab,则(1‴2)‴3=_________21.如图,要使输出值Y大于100,则输入的最小正整数x是___________22.如图,将一副三角板叠放在一起,使直角顶点重合于0点,则∠AOC+∠DOB=___________度.23.如图,∠AOB中,OD是∠BOC的平分线,OE是∠AOC的平分线,若∠AOB=140,则∠EOD=___________度.24.已知2|312|102nm,则2mn___________.25.观察下面的一列单项式:2342,4,8,16xxxx,„根据你发现的规律,第7个单项式为___________;第n个单项式为___________.三、计算或化简(共4个小题,每小题4分,共16分)26.计算:124112372327.计算:2(6.5)(2)(5)528.计算:1820`32``3015`22``29.化简:22(521)4(382)aaaa四、解方程或不等式(共2个小题,每小题5分。共10分)30.解方程:163.56.57xxx五、列方程解应用题(共2个小题,每小题8分,共16分)32.张欣和李明相约到图书城去买书.请你根据他们的对话内容,求出李明上次所买书籍的原价.33.粗蜡烛和细蜡烛的长短一样,粗蜡烛可以点5小时,细蜡烛可以点4小时,如果同时点燃这两支蜡烛,过了一段时间后,剩余的粗蜡烛长度是细蜡烛长度的2倍,问这两支蜡烛已点燃了多少时间?七、选做题(本大题共2个小题,第35题2分,第36题3分,共5分,得分记入总分,但总分不得超过100分)35.已知:关于x的方程323axbx的解是2x,其中0a且0b,求代数式abba的值.参考答案及评分标准一、选择题(共15个小题,每小题2分,共30分)1.A2.D3.A4.B5.A6.D7.C8.D9.B10.C11.B12.D13.C14.B15.A二、填空题(共10个小题,每小题2分,共20分)16.>17.118.-519.2134xy20.-221.2122.18023.7024.1025.128x7;(-1)n+1·2n·xn三、计算或化简(共4个小题,每小题4分,共16分)26.计算:1241123723.解:原式=1121422337=-1+47=37.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„4分27.计算:(-6.5)+(-2)÷25÷(-5).解:原式=-6.5+(-2)×52×15=-6.5+(-1)=-7.5.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„4分28.计算:18°20′32″+30°15′22″.解:原式=48°35′54″.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„4分29.化简:(5a2+2a-1)-4(3-8a+2a2).解:原式=5a2+2a-1-12+32a-8a2=-3a2+34a-13.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„4分四、解方程或不等式(共2个小题,每小题5分,共10分)30.解方程:16x-3.5x-6.5x=7.解:6x=7,x=76„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„5分31.解不等式:13x>5-x,并把解集表示在数轴上.解:x-1>15-3x,4x>16,x>4.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„3分在数轴上表示其解集:„„„„„„„„„„„„„5分五、列方程解应用题(共2个小题,每小题8分,共16分)32.解:设李明上次所买书籍的原价为x元,根据题意列方程得:x-(0.8x+20)=12.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„5分解方程得:x=160.答:李明上次所买书籍的原价为160元.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„8分33.解:设这两支蜡烛已点燃了x小时,根据题意列方程得:12154xx.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„5分解方程得:x=103答:这两支蜡烛已点燃了103小时.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„8分六、解答题(共1个小题,共8分)34.解:由有理数的除法法则“两数相除,异号得负”,有(1)510230.xx,或(2)510230.xx,„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„2分解不等式组(1),得:1352x,解不等式组(2),无解.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„6分故分式不等式5133xx<0的解集为1352x„„„„„„„„„„„„„8分七、选做题(本大题共2个小题,第35题2分,第36题3分,共5分,得分记入总分,但总分不得超过100分)35.解:∵关于x的方程与323axbx的解是x=2,∴22323ab,∴3a=4b.∵a≠0且b≠0,∴43437,,343412ababbaba.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„2分36.解:∵BC=AC-AB,AC=7,AB=5,∴BC=2.∴BD=4BC=8,AD=BD-AB=3.∵CD=BD+BC.∴CD=10(cm).∴E为CD的中点,∴DE=12CD=5.∴AE=DE-AD=2(cm).∴AE是CD的15.„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„3分初一数学上册期末考试试题及答案

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